Why N. C. Should Erect
and Preserve Memorials
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WHY NORTH CAROLINA SHOULD ERECT AND
PRESERVE MEMORIALS AND MARK
J. BRYAN GRIMES
BEFORE THE NORTH CAROLINA LITERARY AND HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.
RALEIGH. N. C . NOVEMBER A. 1 909
[Reprinted from the North Carolina, Review, Literary and
Historical Section of the News and Observer.']
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
WHY NORTH CAROLINA SHOULD ERECT AND
PRESERVE MEMORIALS AND MARK
J. BRYAN GRIMES
BEFORE THE NORTH CAROLINA LITERARY AND HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.
RALEIGH, N. C . NOVEMBER 4. 1909.
[Reprinted from the North Carolina Review, Literary and Historical Section of the
News and Observer.]
This afternoon marks the tenth an-
nual session of this association. Just
a decade ago a company of patriotic
North Carolinians gathered together
and organized the State Literary and
Historical Association. The purposes
of the organization are:
"The collection, preservation, pro-
duction and dissemination of State
literature and history; the encourage-
ment of public and school libraries;
the establishment of an historical mu-
seum; the inculcation of a literary
spirit among our people; the correc-
tion of printed misrepresentations con-
cerning North Carolina; and the en-
gendering of an intelligent, healthy
State pride in the rising generation."
As a result of their efforts:
(a) Twenty-four hundred libraries
have been established in rural public
schools, containing two hundred thou-
sand well selected books with a read-
ing circle of a million people.
(b) The Hall of History has been
established containing the best collec-
tion of historical relics to be found
in the South. It is annually visited by
more than 50,000 sons and daughters
of the State to whom the exhibit Is a
revelation and an inspiration. The
display is an object lesson which in
a few minutes demonstrates and
teaches more of the State's history
than can be learned in months of
book study. Under the enthusiastic
and devoted care of Col. F. A. Olds
this museum has grown to be the pride
of the State, and now contains over
seven thousand articles, many of them
of priceless historical value. It is in
its infancy and when domiciled in a
fire-proof building it will easily mul-
tiply itself to seven times seven thou-
(c) This association has caused the
establishment of North Carolina Day
in the public schools whereby one day
in each year is devoted to the celebra-
tion of North Carolina history. On
that day more than half a million
children with their relatives and
friends gather together to hear the
story of their mother State.
(d) In an effort to preserve the in-
tegrity of our history and defend the
State from misrepresentation, it set-
tled beyond question our claim of
"First at Bethel, Farthest at Gettys-
burg, Last at Appomattox." These
are no longer controverted state-
ments in our history and we have
chiseled the facts on imperishable
granite and placed upon the gory
fields of Bethel, Chickamauga and Ap-
pomattox stones marking North Caro-
(e) This association has inculcated
a literary spirit and a desire for his-
toric research among our people, with
the result that more literature is now
being written in North Carolina than
she has ever before produced. Un-
der its influence a gifted Carolinian
has offered a jeweled cup to the au-
thor of the best work of the preceding
(f) A few years ago the student of
North Carolina history had to rely
upon almost inaccessible manuscripts
and the obscure writings of William-
son, Martin, Hawks and a few others.
It is true, Murphy, Graham, Jones,
HJubbard, Swain, Wiley, Davis and
some others at a later period wrote
ably and well, but we had nothing
from them approaching the dignity of
a story of our people.
In the midst of many difficulties
Wheeler and Moore with great labor
dug out much of the history of North
Carolina. Then came Saunders with
his monumental work, the Colonial
Records, followed by Judge Clark with
his State Records, covering the period
from 1776 to 1791.
With the two hundred years of our
State's life, our history writers could
be counted within a score. Now more
than a score are at work in a labor
of love telling the story of an heroic
past and a teeming present and the
task has just begun. Within the decade
Battle, Ashe, Graham, Clark, Hill,
Peele, Weeks, Connor, Hamilton,
Nash, Clewell, Pittman, Boyd, Sims.
Allen, Hoyt, Waddell, Sikes, Noble,
Schenck, Haywood, Bassett, Grady,
Dodd and others have written and are
now writing with accuracy and ability.
Today a scholar desiring to study the
history of North Carolina would go to
the University of Wisconsin rather
than to our own University; to the
capital of Wisconsin or Massachusetts.
rather than to our own capital for his
material. In a few years all this will
Among other credits due the Litera-
ry and Historical Association is the
creation of the North Carolina Histor-
ical Commission. The act establish-
ing it declares that,
"It shall be the duty of the Com-
mission to have collected from the
files of old newspapers, court records,
church records, private collections,
and elsewhere, historical data pertain-
ing to the history of North Carolina
and the territory included therein
from the earliest times; to have such
material properly edited, published t>y
the State Printer as other State print-
ing, and distributed under the direc-
tion of the Commission; to care for
proper marking and preservation of
battle-fields, houses and other places
celebrated in the history of the State;
to diffuse knowledge in reference to
the history and resources of North
Carolina; to encourage the study of
North Carolina history in the schools
of the State, and to stimulate and en-
courage historical investigation and
research among the people of the
This Commission is not only gather-
ing records, manuscripts, historic ma-
terial and relics, but it is endeavoring
to arouse our people to the necessity
of preserving our memorials and im-
press upon them the importance of
telling the story of the Old North
State in paintings, marble and bronze.
It is making an effort to secure the
erection of monuments to the great
men and great events in our history
and as far as possible to locate and
mark historic sites in North Carolina.
The State Literary and Historical As-
sociation from now on should lend
itself and bend itself to co-operate
with the Historical Commission to
Prom the earliest civilizations of
antiquity, nations have adorned their
halls with statues of their rulers and
patriots and ornamented their walls
with pictorial stories of national traits
and heroism. By song and story, pic-
torial history and allegory they have
kept ever present before their peoples
the hero traditions of their races. They
have garlanded their triumphs and
woven the willow and cypress to make
more sacred their lost causes. Not
only should we cluster in and around
our capital such monuments and me-
morials, but we should mark the his-
toric places within our State and
such places within our neighboring
States as have been made sacred by
the blood of our hero soldiers and
have been the scene of their prowess
To the traveler there must be a feel-
ing of disappointment when he comes
to North Carolina. Accustomed as he
is in visiting the capitals of the old
world to read their history and study
the li-'J of the nations in monuments
and marble busts, in portraits, great
paintings and magnificent buildings,
he cannot but feel and be impressed
with our want of pride. In the States
to the north of us every hamlet and
every city has markers, tablets and
monuments commemorating every im-
portant event in its history; every
man who has served his State is re-
membered with granite, marble or
bronze. Their story is told to all the
world, their greatness proclaimed to
all men and their States enriched by
their services and their people are
ennobled in the eyes of the world and
elevated in their own self esteem.
What avails a great deed after the
crisis that called it forth has passed,
if it is not recorded? It is lost, its
memory is gone, its example is wasted;
whereas, if recorded it will live to in-
spire others to emulate, and its story
will enrich the world. We must study
the past to guide and inspire the pres-
ent, avoiding its weaknesses, emu-
lating its successes and profiting by
its experiences. Our life and our
being are part of it — built on it. If
built on honor and virtue, our future
is safe; if characterless and weak, the
future is less hopeful. "We must
know how we became what we are in
order to become better than we are."
"The roots of the present lie deep in
the past, and nothing in the past is
dead to the man who would learn how
the present came to be what it is."
"Men may rise on stepping stones of
their dead selves to higher things."
Because we are a Democratic people
with Democratic tastes is no reason
why we should withhold honor from
those who have served us faithfully
A gifted author has written, "A
democracy, fellow citizens, cannot af-
ford to be ungrateful. Built as it is
upon loyal service and patriotic sacri-
fice, the day of its forgetting will be
the day of its undermining." Justice
has not been done our dead, we have
not been jealous of their fame and
zealous in seeing that they have re-
ceived their just meed of praise,
neither have we been grateful for
their services. The people of North
Carolina have been doers rather than
writers. They have been wanting in
State pride and that lack has been
largely for want of a State history.
They have lacked self assertion and
self appreciation because there was
no record to which they could appeal.
Those who would defend their State
were ignorant of the testimony. We
have been sensitive because historians
neglected or misrepresented us, while
it has largely been our own fault, as
we have expected others to do for us
what we have not done for ourselves.
We had to learn that we must keep
our own records to receive proper
credits. North Carolina has been sub-
jected to ridicule, misrepresentation
and malignment from the day of Seth
Sothel, Urmstone, Byrd and Chalmers
on down to the ninth edition of the
Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 1, pg.
719) where we find, after a discussion
of the thinkers in the South, "Nor is it
too much to say that mainly by their
connection with the North, the Caro-
linas have been saved from sinking to
the level of Mexico or the Antilles."
We are unknown to the outside
world because we are almost unknown
to ourselves. The early royalist
writers draw unkind pictures of us be-
cause "the most inconsiderable com-
munity of North Carolina has never
relinquished the flattering gratifica-
tion of self rule." Many of our own
historians fell into the error of accept-
ing the royalist views and even some
of our more recent painters have
clouded rather than illumined the can-
vas in making the picture of the early
Carolinians. He was the freest of the
free. He demanded the rights under
his charter and under the Great Deed
of Grant. With him the fundamental
ideal was self government and he
waged a continual fight against usurp-
ed authority, resisting and arresting
any invasion of his guaranteed rights.
Patriotism was his religion, his hearth-
stone was his altar and he loved the
soil that gave him inspiration,
strength and sustenance.
In our capitol today the only monu-
ment or bust is to a South Carolinian.
Eight empty niches in the rotunda in-
variably provoke comment from the
historians, scholars and sightseers.
These blanks misrepresent our State
as it leaves the impression that we
have had no sons whom we admired
and esteemed sufficiently to commem-
orate in marble or bronze. It is the
purpose of the Historical Commission,
at an early date, to place in one of
these niches a bust of one of the great-
est men of the Union — William A.
Graham. We hope the people of the
State, acting through their legislature,
will soon fill them all with busts of
other great North Carolinians.
In the Hall of the General Assem-
bly there are three great paintings — ■
only one of them to a North Caro-
linian — Zebulon B. Vance. In the
capitol grounds for generations the
only statue was of a Virginian, but in
the last decade a heroic statue of the
beloved Vance has been erected by
the State and the people. There has
also been erected a bronze figure to
the gallant Worth Bagley.
In the Statuary Hall at Washington,
both the niches assigned to North
Carolina are still vacant, though the
General Assembly of 1907 authorized
the placing of a statue to Vance in one
of them after 1911.
It would be to the credit of North
Carolina to erect memorials to the
leading characters in the most re-
markable incidents in her history. We
should preserve the name and fame
of such men as John Culpepper,
George Durant and Capt. James
Blount, leaders in the Culpepper Revo-
lution against usurped power. They
were the first men in America to set
up a government independent of royal
authority. An effort is now being
made by patriotic ladies in Pasquo-
tank County to mark the place where
this assembly was held. There should
be a memorial to John Porter, the
father of democracy in North Caro-
lina, the leader of the people in their
fight for chartered rights and against
the test oaths of an established
church. His lieutenant and successor
to leadership, Edward Moseley, should
also be remembered. Of him the
Hon. George Davis wrote:
"Of all the men who watched and
guarded the tottering footsteps of our
infant State, there was not one who
in intellectual ability, in solid and po-
lite learning, in scholarly cultivation
and refinement, in courage and en-
durance, in high Christian morality,
in generous consideration for the wel-
fare of others, in all the true merit,
in fine, which makes a man among
men could equal Edward Moseley."
Col. Saunders said, "And to him,
above all others, should North Caro-
lina erect her first statue, for to him,
above all others, is she indebted for
stimulating that love of liberty regu-
lated by law, and that hatred of ar-
bitrary government that has ever
characterized her people."
The day will come in North Carolina
when we shall see statues, monuments
and memorials to such men as Col.
James Moore, who in time of need
brought his South Carolina soldiers
to our relief and defeated the Indians
To Col. James Innes, Commander-
in-Chief of the American forces in
the expedition to the Ohio against the
French and Indians, who as Governor
of Fort Cumberland received and pro-
tected the broken and fugitive forces
of Braddock on their flight from that
ill-fated field; (Col. Innes left his plan-
tation, Point Pleasant, and other
property to establish a "free school
for the benefite of the youth of
To General Hugh Waddell. a hero
of the Fort Duquesne expedition, the
foremost soldier of the colony and
the commander of an expedition
against the Indians.
To Samuel Swann, the veteran
Speaker of the Assembly; to "The
Great Ajax of the Revolution" in
North Carolina, the patriotic. and
lion-hearted John Harvey; to Corne-
lius Harnett, "The Samuel Adams of
North Carolina;" to Gen. John Ashe,
"The most chivalrous hero of the
Revolution;" to Richard Caswell, one
of the greatest of Carolinians; to John
Paul Jones, who made the stars and
stripes known and feared on every
sea; to Joseph Hewes, signer of
the Declaration of Independence
and organizer of the Ameri-
can Navy; to John Penn,
signer of the Declaration of Inde-
pendence; to Samuel Johnston,
Speaker, Governor and United States
Senator; to Col. Alexander Lillington,
of Moore's Creek fame; to Col. James
Moore, soldier of the Revolution; to
Thomas Jones, one of the authors of
the Constitution; to James Iredell
and Alfred Moore, the great jurists;
to General William R. Davie, ora-
tor, soldier, statesman and father of
the University of North Carolina; to
Willie Jones, statesman and leader;
to Nathaniel Macon, Congressman,
United States Senator, "The last of
the Romans;" to William Gaston,
jurist and statesman; to James C.
Dobbin, Speaker of the House of
Commons, member of Congress, and
Secretary of the Navy; to John
Branch, member of Congress, Gov-
ernor and Secretary of Navy; to
George E. Badger, jurist, United
States Senator and Secretary of Navy;
to Thomas Ruffin, one of the greatest
of American jurists; to Archibald D.
Murphey, scholar and jurist; to David
L. Swain, jurist, Governor and Pres-
ident of the University of North Car-
olina; to Weldon N. Edwards, states-
man and president of the Secession
Convention; to William L. Saunders,
soldier, editor, historian, statesman;
to General M. W. Ransom, soldier,
orator and statesman; to General
Thomas L. Clingman, soldier and Uni-
ted States Senator; to General D. H.
Hill, the hero of a hundred battles;
to General W. D. Pender, the superb
soldier who, had he commanded at
Gettysburg, would have saved the Con-
federacy, now lying in an unmarked
grave at Tarboro; to General J. John r
ston Pettigrew, brilliant soldier and
commander of the world -famed
charge at Gettysburg; to General Ju-
nius Daniel, the gallant soldier killed
at Spottsylvania; to Branch, Ander-
son, Ramseur, Gordon and others who
made glory for North Carolina, and
who sealed their devotion to their
State with their lives.
North Carolina has been criticized
for a want of spirit in not having
delegates attend the *Stamp Act Con-
gress at New York, October 2, 1765.
This colony's want of representation
was due to Governor Tryon's shrewd-
ness in preventing all meetings of the
North Carolina Assembly during the
Stamp Act troubles, which made it
impossible for the colony to select
delegates; but while the Stamp Act
Congress was passing resolves, the
Cape Fear planters led by the most
distinguished soldier of the Province.
General Hugh Waddell, and by Colo-
nel John Ashe, Speaker of the As-
* It is not generally known that Henry M'Culloh was probably the author of the proposal to extend
the Stamp duties to the American Colonies. ...,,„,. .j i, a~ +„ „™
He proposed stamp duties "as a source of taxation by which the Colonies could be made to con-
tribute a quota to the cost of the late war * * * and to put these concerns upon a_Pr°Per
footing- it will be absolutely necessary to establish proper Funds in America, by a stamp Duty on Vellum
and Paper." Grenville adopted this suggestion and reaped all the fam'e and ill-fame of it.
See "Miscellaneous Representations relative to Our Concerns In America Submitted to tnefcarl
of Bute by Henry M'Culloh." Published by Wm. A. Shaw, Editor of the Calendar of Treasury Books
George Harding, Dealer in Economics. Historical Works, etc., 64 Great Russell St., London, W. C.
Henry M'Culloh was Inspector of quit rents in North and South Carolina (1739). Naval Officer at
Cape Breton ( 1746). Secretary and Clerk of the Crown for North Carolina. He owned over one million
acres of land in North Carolina, at the heads of Pee Dee, Cape Fear and Neuse Rivers. He was the
father of Henry Eustace M'Culloh and great uncle of James Iredell.
sembly, were defying- the British Gov-
ernment. After having made the
Stamp Master sign a paper declaring
he would never execute the duties de-
volving upon him by this position,
they forced the Captain of the British
Sloop of War "Diligence" to surren-
der to their demands. This was the
first armed resistance to British op-
pression in America and a painting
of that scene should be familiar to
every child in this country.
As subjects for paintings worthy of
world fame that should adorn our
Capitol walls may be mentioned:
The landing of the English in
The first English settlement and
fort in the New World.
The first rite of Christian baptism
George Durant in 1661 buying land
from Kilcocanen, King of the Teopim
Indians, twenty years before the Wil-
liam Penn treaty at Uplands in 1682.
The Mecklenburg Declaration of In-
Halifax Convention and Resolution
of April 12. 1776.
General Jethro Sumner's famous
bayonet charge at Eutaw Springs, the
most celebrated charge of the Revolu-
Eattle of King's Mountain.
General Robert Howe in command
of Virginia and North Carolina troops
driving Lord Dunmore, the British
Governor, to his ships in Norfolk har-
Andrew Jackson commanding North
Carolinians and Tennesseeans at the
battle of New Orleans.
Johnston Blakeley's battles on the
Secession Convention of 1861 when
North Carolina left the Union without
a dissenting vote.
Pettigrew's world renowned charge
Ramseur's Brigade saving the army
The Fourth North Carolina Regi-
ment at Seven Pines.
The Twenty-sixth North Carolina
Regiment at Gettysburg.
The Fifth North Carolina Regiment
Capt. Tuttle's Company at Gettys-
The undaunted Hill at South Moun-
tain, where, with 4,000 men, he held
at bay for a whole day 30,000 men, the
flower of McClellan's army.
Hoke's capture of Plymouth.
The Albemarle fight at the mouth of
Fort Fisher, the greatest bombard-
ment in history.
Last at Appomattox.
James Iredell Waddell, commanding
the Shenandoah, carrying the Stars
and Bars around the world eight
months after Lee's surrender, and
other remarkable events.
At the University of North Carolina
is the great Memorial Hall upon
whose walls are tablets to her distin-
guished alumni, embracing many of
the most illustrious sons. On
the walls of the Philanthropic and
Dialectic Societies is probably the best
collection of oil portraits of distin-
guished men to be found in the South.
The sons of this institution have
adorned North Carolina life for more
than a century and their Alma Mater
honors them and herself in perpetu-
ating their memory, and the history
of the State can be read in the lives
of these men. At Chapel Hill was
built the first astronomical observa-
tory in the United States (1831) by
Dr. Joseph Caldwell, a president of
this institution. A monument to Dr.
Caldwell stands on the campus. Prof.
Olmstead, of the University, organ-
ized the first geological and mineral-
ogic survey in America.
In the State Library, Supreme Court
Library, Governor's Mansion and Ex-
ecutive office there are many portraits
of North Carolinians who have been
foremost in the service of the State.
At the Governor's Mansion there is
also a bust of Governor John W. Ellis.
There are also paintings and memori-
als to soldiers of the State in the
North Carolina Room in the
Confederate Museum in Richmond,
and at the Lee Camp Hall in Rich-
North Carolina has honored the
memory of some of her sons by
naming counti.es for them.
Alexander was named for the Alex-
ander family of Mecklenburg.
Ashe for Governor Samuel Ashe.
Buncombe for Colonel Edward Bun-
Burke for Governor Thomas Burke.
Cabarrus for Stephen Cabarrus.
Caldwell for Dr. Joseph Caldwell.
Caswell for General Richard Cas-
Cleveland for Col. Benjamin Clove-
Dare for Virginia Dare.
Davidson for General William L.
Davie for General W. R. Davie.
Durham for Dr. B. L. Durham.
Forsyth for Col. Benjamin Forsyth.
Gaston for Judge William Gaston.
Graham for Hon. W. A. Graham.
Harnett for Cornelius Harnett.
Haywood for Hon. John Haywood.
Henderson for Hon. Leonard Hend-
Iredell for Judge James Iredell.
Jones for General Willie Jones.
Lenoir for Gen. William Lenoir.
McDowell for Col. Joseph McDow-
Macon for Nathaniel Macon.
Mitchell for Rev. Dr. Elisha
Moore for Judge Alfred Moore.
Nash for Gen. Francis Nash.
Pender for Gen. W. D. Pender.
Person for Gen. Thomas Person.
Polk for Gen. Thomas Polk.
Rutherford for Gen. Griffith Ruth-
Sampson for Col. John Sampson.
Stanly for Hon. John Stanly.
Stokes for Hon. John Stokes.
Swain for Governor David L. Swain.
Vance for Governor Zebulon B.
Wilson for Col. Louis D. Wilson.
Yancey for Hon. Bartlett Yancey.
The great growth in the past few
years of patriotic organizations in
North Carolina promises much for the
development of historic interest in the
State. Now at work are the various
Confederate Memorial Associations,
the Daughters of the Confederacy, the
Society of the Cincinnati, the Sons of
the Revolution, North Carolina His-
torical Society at the University,
Trinity College Historical Society,
Wachovia Historical Society, Alamance
Battle Ground Association, Guilford
Battle Ground Association, Moore's
Creek Battle Ground Association,
North Carolina Society of the Daugh-
ters of the American Revolution,
North Carolina Society of the Daugh-
ters of the Revolution, King's Moun-
tain Battle Ground Association, Daniel
Boone Association, John Charles Mc-
Neill Memorial Society and others.
The most pathetic, the most tragic,
the most heroic, the grandest figure
of all the ages, is the Confederate
soldier at Appomattox. Over his vis-
ion comes the scene of the smoulder-
ing ruins of his boyhood home. His
land is drenched in blood. An old
widowed mother weeps for his father
who gave his life for a lost cause
and prays for her son's return. A pal-
lid and sickened wife overwrought
and overworked struggles in vain for
bread, the hunger-cry of his starv-
ing children maddens his brain, the
shot-torn, lifeless form of his brother
lies piled unburied in the trenches
behind him; half starved, half naked,
foot-sore and emaciated he stands. A
far-away look is on his face, tears
furrow his powder-sta'ned, dusty
cheeks, but there is the light of bat-
tle in his eye, the fire of a great un-
conquerable principle within his
heart. Resolute and undaunted he
turns about and with bitter protests
at being surrendered, begs his old
commander to lead him back to battle,
back to the field of blood and death;
pleading he stands as the life-blood
of the Confederacy ebbs away in the
smoke of the North Carolina guns at
To the Confederate soldier North
Carolina has erected a great monu-
ment in the Capitol Square at Ral-
eigh. The State has also placed a
monument at Appomattox which bears
on the north side this inscription:
"Last at Appomattox.
At This Place the North Carolina
Brigade of Brigadier-General W.
R. Cox of Grimes' Division
Fired the Last Volley 9 April, 1865.
M„.ior-General Bryan Grimes of North
Planned the Last Battle Fought by the
Army of Northern Virginia and
Commanded the Infantry
Engasred Therein, the Greater Part
of Whom Were North Carolinians.
This Stone is Erected by the Author-
The General Assembly
In Grateful and Perpetual Memory of
the Valor, Endurance, and Patri-
otism of Her Sons
Who Followed with Unshaken Fidel-
ity the Fortunes of the Confed-
eracy to This Closing Scene,
Faithful to the End.
Erected 9 April, 1905."
On the south side is a list of the
North Carolina Brigades with number
of troops paroled at Appomattox. The
east and west ends are devoted to
North Carolina's war record.
At Appomattox markers have also
been placed on the spot where a bat-
tery was captured the morning of the
surrender by the North Carolina
Brigade of General W. P. Roberts,
and at the place where was fought
the last skirmish by Capt. W. T.
Jenkins, of the 14th North Carolina
Regiment, commanding men of the \
4th and 14th regiments.
At Bethel, the Bethel Monument As-
sociation of Virginia and North Car-
olina have erected a monument to
Henry Lawson Wyatt, and North Car-
olina has placed a marker where
At Chickamauga, the State of North
Carolina has erected a monument "To
mark the point attained by the Six-
tieth N. C. Regiment on September
20, 1863;" another "To mark the point
attained by the Thirty-ninth North
Carolina Regiment on September 19,
1863;" another on Snodgrass Hill "To
mark the extreme point attained in a
charge by the right of the Fifty-eighth
North Carolina Regiment about 6 p.
m., September 20, 1863;" and yet an-
other on Snodgrass Hill where the
Thirty-ninth North Carolina Regiment
crossed the Federal line about sunset
September 20, 1863.
Another monument at Chickamauga
has been erected by the Asheville
Chapter of the Daughters of the Con-
federacy and friends of Sixtieth North
Carolina Regiment. "Thi.s marks the
spot reached by the Sixtieth Regi-
ment North Carolina Volunteers about
noon September 20, 1863, the farth-
est point attained by Confederate
troops in that famous charge."
To the Confederate soldier a grate-
ful and responsive people haye erect-
ed many monuments, and others are
now being raised. Among them may
bo mentioned those at:
Asheville, Bentonville, Charlotte,
Columbia, Concord, Edenton, Frank-
lin, Fayetteville, Goldsboro, Greens-
boro, Henderson, Hendersr nville, Lex-
ington, Lumberton, Louisburg, Mor-
ganton, New Bern, Newton, Oxford,
Fitisboro, Rockingham. Raleigh,
Staiesville, Shelby, Salisbury, Tarboro,
Wilmington, Warrent^n, Wilson.
V a'lesboro, "Washington. Windsor,
The Daughters of the Confederacy
are now erecting a. monument at Wil-
mington to George Davis, attorney
General of the Confederacy, the cor-
ner-stone of which was laid during
the recent Convention of the United
Daughters of the Confederal.';/ in that
city on October 14, 1909.
At the old Blandford Church at
Petersburg, Virginia, a North Caro-
lina memorial window was unveiled
on Sunday, June 2nd, 1907. "In mem-
ory of North Carolina's soldiers 40.-
275 of whom proved their devotion
by their death." These lines are fol-
lowed by the words "God Bless North
Carolina. R. E. Lee." (Fac simile
At Guilford Court House the Bat-
tle Ground Association, under the
leadership of that gallant soldier and
patriotic citizen, Col. Joseph M. More-
head, has erected or secured the erec-
tion of the following monuments:
Col. Arthur Forbes (1888).
Battle Ground Pyramid (1888).
Shaft over three Continentals, called
"Red, White and Blue." (1888).
Capt. James Tate (1891).
General Jethro Sumner (1891).
Maryland Monument (1892).
Major John Daves (1903).
Col. Joseph Winston and Gov. Jesse
Franklin, 1S95, reinterred here 1906.
Lieut.-Col. James Stewart (British)
Col. Hal Dixon (1896).
Hooper-Penn Signers (1896).
Northern Limit; Southern Limit.
Old Manor House.
Gillies Lee's Bugler Boy (1898).
Nathaniel Macon (1908).
Capt. James Morehead (1902).
A Polished Marker (4 sides) "No
North, Washington; No South, Greene"
Alamance Monument (1901).
King's Mountain (1904).
Judge Schenck (1904).
Gen. Davidson (1906).
General Nash (1906).
Clio, Muse of History (1908).
Bretigny and Wm. Washington
Monolith "E Pluribus Unum."
(On the grounds, yet to be erected).
Completed base awaiting projected
The Wachovia Historical Society has
been active in collecting historical
records and has erected the following
Tablet marking the place and time
of arrival of the first Moravian settlers
in Wachovia, November, 1753, and site
of their first dwelling.
Tablet erected on the site of the
"Old Dutch Fort" which was erected
for protection from the Indians dur-
ing the French and Indian War, 1756-
Granite posts marking the corners
and outline of the "Old Dutch Fort."
Granite monument at Bethabara
Church to commemorate the beginning
of Wachovia and the founding ofj
Bethabara in November, 1753. Monu-
ment gives the names of the first set-
All of the above tablets are at Beth-
abara, six miles north of Winston-
Salem and were erected in 1903. There
is another tablet at Bethabara, erect-
ed in 1803, to commemorate the first
fifty years of Wachovia.
Tablet erected at the Old Salem
Hotel, in Salem, to commemorate the
visit of President Washington in 17 91.
Gov. Martin, of North Carolina, visit-
ed President Washington while he
was a guest there.
Bronze tablet placed on the door to
"Washington's Room" in Old Salem
These two tablets were erected in
190S by the Daughters of the Ameri-
can Revolution and the Wachovia His-
The Sons of the Revolution annual-
ly present to the State of North Caro-
lina, an oil portrait of some distin-
guished Revolutionary leader. This
society has presented to the State
portraits of James Iredell, Alfred
Moore, Samuel Johnson and Alexander
Martin, and will in a few days present
a portrait of Governor Abner Nash.
The North Carolina Society of
the Daughters of the American Revo-
lution has erected a number of me-
The Elizabeth Maxwell Steele Chap-
ter, of Salisbury, has erected one to
Elizabeth Maxwell Steele.
The Dorcas Bell Love Chapter of
TVaynesville, has erected a bronze
tablet in memory of Col. Robert Love.
The Edward Buncombe Chapter in
.Asheville will establish a memorial to
Col. Edward Buncombe.
The Morganton Chapter will mark
the place of the Council Oak at Qua-
ker Meadows under which Colonels
Sevier, Campbell and the two McDow-
ells planned the battle of King's
The Mecklenburg Chapter has mon-
uments to the
Mclntyre Skirmish, Oct. 3, 1780.
Monument near Pineville to mark
birthplace of James K. Polk, and a
marker at the Sugar Creek Burying
The Joseph Winston Chapter, co-
operating with the Wachovia Histori-
cal Association has marked with two
bronze tablets points in Old Salem
town identified with Washington's
visit, and this chapter will soon mark
The North Carolina Society of the
Daughters of the Revolution has erect-
ed a memorial tablet in the rotunda
of the Capitol to commemorate the
Edenton Tea Party.
A patriotic citizen has marked the
spot on which the celebrated Tea
Party house stood.
The North Carolina Society of the
Colonial Dames of America has erect-
ed a monument to Cornelius Harnett;
a monument at the ruins of the
Church of St. Philip, and under their
auspices a memorial has been erected
at Brunswick to Col. Maurice Moore
and "to the heroes and patriots of the
Lower Cape Fear led by Hugh Wad-
dell and John Ashe;" and they have
also marked the site of Governor Try-
on's palace at Russelboro.
At Moore's Creek, the first great
American victory of the Revolution
was won, an event that not only in-
spirited the whole of America, but as
Frothingham says, "Carried North
Carolina as a unit in favor of inde-
pendence when the colonies from New
England to Virginia were in solid ar-
ray against it." On the battlefield
there has recently been unveiled a
monument to the Loyalists who fought
and fell there, beautifully illustrating
the present homogeneity of our people
whose ancestors fought on both sides
in that momentous battle.
At King's Mountain the government
has just finished a handsome monu-
ment and the King's Mountain Battle
Ground Association is making an ef-
fort to have the government establish
a national park there.
On the Alamance Battlefield chere
is a monument erected to "The First
Battle of the Revolution," and the
Alamance Battle Ground Association
also proposes to erect one where the
Pyle Hacking Match took place near
Among others worthy of mention
are monuments to The Mecklenburg
Declaration at Charlotte; Memorial
Stone at Fort Raleigh; to Andrew
Jackson at ; to William Hooper
at Wilmington; to Richard Caswell at
Kinston;'to Dr. Elisha Mitchell at Mt.
Mitchell; to Capt. Otway Burns at
Burnsville; to Washington Duke at
Trinity College; to Zebulon B. Vance
at Asheville; to Richmond M. Pearson
at Raleigh (by his former law stu-
dents) ; and one at Charlotte to the
heroic William E. Shipp, whose gal-
lant young life was laid down for his
country at Santiago.
Probably the most important event
in the history of North Carolina was
the Halifax Resolution presented for
the committee by Cornelius Harnett
to the Provincial Congress, April 12,
1776, which reads as follows:
"Resolved, That the delegates for
this colony in the Continental Con-
gress be empowered to concur with
the delegates of other colonies in de-
claring independency, and forming
foreign alliances, reserving to this
colony the sole and exclusive right of
forming a constitution and laws for
this colony, and of appointing dele-
gates from time to time under the
direction of a general representation
thereof, to meet delegates of other
colonies for such purposes as shall
be hereafter pointed out."
From this time forward all political
relations were severed with Great
Britain and North Carolina acted as
an independent colony. This reso-
lution should be lettered in bronze and
affixed to the walls of our capitol.
The General Assembly of North Car-
olina of 1909 made April 12th a State
holiday in commemoration of that
great event. Various Northern States
have erected monuments to their dead
in Federal cemeteries at different
points in North Carolina, notably at
Salisbury and New Bern.
A number of I\orth Carolinians have
established memorials in the form of
college buildings, endowments, schol-
arships and prizes; but the most beau-
tiful memorial in this State is the
Olivia Raney Library. This li-
brary was built by a generous
man as a memorial to his wife, a gift-
ed Christian woman whose mission in
life was to help and make happier
those who came within the radius of
her acquaintance. In life her work
was a benediction — in death her in-
fluence still lives and grows, benefit-
ting and giving pleasure to the many
hundreds who avail themselves of this
beneficence. On this curtain we see
a picture of the famous Taj Mahal,
built by an Indian Prince, in memory
of his queen — a tribute to love and
vanity. Surrounding us is the Olivia
Raney Library, erected by a noble
hearted gentleman in memory of the
queen of his home — an expression of
love and altruism.
There are hundreds of historic sites,
buildings, colonial forts, battle
grounds, churches and schools,
colonial houses, burial places, etc.,
which are still unmarked. The best
list of these places obtainable has
been arranged and compiled by that
devoted Carolinian, Mrs. James
Sprunt, in a most interesting and val-
uable paper prepared for the National
Society of the Colonial Dames of
America. As complete a list as the
Historical Commission has been able to
compile is appended to this paper. The
State Historical Commission is now
endeavoring, though with slow local
co-operation, to make an accurate list
of these places, arranged by counties.
The work of marking and protecting
these places must be done by the
home people and local societies. There
are public spirited citizens with local
pride in every community who should
organize for this purpose. The Com-
mission hopes to be able to co-operate
with local chapters of the Daughters
of the Confederacy, Colonial Dames
and Daughters of the Revolution,
Daughters of the American Revolu-
tion and other patriotic societies.
This would be one of the most pa-
triotic ends to which these associa-
tions could lend themselves. The
Commission will also make an effort
to interest the schools and school or-
ganizations in the various counties in
this work. In no other way can his-
tory be better taught or local pride
stimulated or interest aw r akened in
the State. Another phase of histori-
cal work to which our patriotic so-
cieties could direct their efforts is to
prevent vandalism and desecration.
On a beautiful eminence overlook-
ing the wide waters of Pasquotank
River as it loses itself in Albemarle
Sound is the site of Elmwood, or Th'e
Elms, the old colonial seat of the
Swanns. Here stood a brick house-,
one of the first built in the colony.
During the war between the States
Federal troops tore it down to use
the brick for other purposes. In it
probably lived more distinguished men
than ever occupied any one residence
in North Carolina. Judge Iredell said
it was celebrated for a more lavish
hospitality and more generous enter-
tainment than any home in the col-
ony. Here lived Col. Thomas Swann,
Speaker; Col. William Swann, Speak-
er; and three members of the family
by the name of Samuel Swann; John
Swann, member of Congress, and their
families. Here lived Frederick Blount,
son of Col. John. Blount, a brother-in-
law of Bishop Pettigrew and' a man
of wealth and culture and an
intimate associate of Governor
Tryon's. Here lived for a while,
William Shepard, a staunch
Federalist, ship owner, planter, and
merchant. Of William Shepard's
sons several moved to the far South.
The three who remained in North
Carolina were Charles B., who was
a member of Congress and declined
re-election; William B., who was a
member of Congress and declined re-
election; James B., who was a can-
didate for Governor of North Caro-
lina. Of his sons-in-law John H.
Bryan was Member of Congress and
declined re-election; Ebenezer Petti-
grew was Member of Congress and
In later years Rev. Solomon Pool,
President of the University of North
Carolina, lived there, as did John
Pool. United States Senator and can-
didate for Governor.
At Elmwood lived and with it were
identified, two Speakers of the As-
sembly, five Congressmen, one United
States Senator, a candidate for Gov-
ernor and a President of the Univer-
sity. No other home in North Caro-
lina had so many historic associa-
This old estate has now been sold
and divided into smaller farms. In
the preparation of a sketch not long
since, the writer was anxious to get
inscription records from the Swann
tombstones, but was informed that
the Swann bricked in graves had re-
cently been dug up by treasure
hunters and such stones as might be
there were covered with brick and
dirt from the excavations of the gold
diggers and grave robbers. Such
vandalism is a disgrace to North
Carolina and no punishment is too
severe for these ghouls.
My attention has been called to
other colonial graves that have
been robbed within the year.
The State should watch more
carefully over these men who
after serving her have been laid to
rest in her bosom. Let them "rest in
peace." Some means should be de-
vised to protect our sacred places
from profanation by those base de-
generates who fringe the lowest shores
of humanity. We call upon the pa-
triotic people in every community to
locate, mark and care for their his-
The want of cities in North Caro-
lina with well known depositories is
one of the chief reasons why there
has been no large collection of his-
torical papers. Individuals have from
time to time made valuable collec-
tions, but these collections in some
cases have been burned or otherwise
destroyed or have found their way
to other States. The want of a fixed
capital also accounts in a large de-
gree for the loss of much of the offi-
cial history of the State. In 1748
Governor Gabriel Johnston writing
from Edenton to the Lords of the
Eoard of Trade in discussing "An act
for Building of Public offices for
Public Meetings and Keeping of Rec-
ords" says "This Province has been
very unhappy for want of such build-
ings ever since I knew it. The Pub-
lic Records lye in a miserable condi-
tion; one part of them at Edenton.
near the Virginia line, in a place
without Lock or Key; a great part
of them in the Secretary's house at
Cape Fear, about two hundred miles
distance from the other. Some few
of them at the Clerk of the Council's
house at New Bern, so that in what-
ever part of the colony a man happens
to be. if he wants to consult any pa-
per or record he must send some
hundred of miles before he can come
In 1749 the General Assembly ap-
pointed John Starkey. Edward Grif-
fith and Jeremiah "Vail, commission-
ers, for erecting Public Buildinsrs at
New Pern. If these commissioners
had erected the Public Buildings at
this time, thousands of most valuable
records and interesting papers would
have been saved. This would have
preserved much lost history and would
have given the State a rank in the
eyes of the world that millions in
money could not buy.
Tn 170 7 was commenced the build-
ing of the Palace at New Bern. It
was the State House, as well as resi-
dence for the Governor and contained
an Assembly Hall, Council Chamber
and public offices. Writing of this
elegant and noble structure Governor
Tryon in 1770 says it was "A Palace
that is a public ornament and credit
to the colony, as well as an honor
to British America." The public rec-
ords were moved into it in January,
1771. It probably cost more than the
people could afford at the time, but
had the seat of government remained
at New Bern, the building of that
State House would have been a wise
investment. There were about 250,-
000 people in the Province at that
time and there was an in-rush of im-
migration then in progress such as
no other province in America exper-
ienced. So great was the prejudice
against this "monument to royalty"
and such was the inconvenience to
the central and western sections of
the State that the Palace was aban-
doned and the Capital became peram-
bulatory, naturally causing the loss
of many priceleci records and manu-
scripts. With a migratory capital for
nearly twenty years, it is
impossible to estimate the dis-
advantage to the State. The
cost of the Palace was an unending
source of criticism of Tryon, but as
a State House it was necessary, even
if built on too grand a scale for North
Carolina. It undoubtedly had an ef-
fect upon architecture in the province,
it preserved our records and we now
take pride in having had the finest
building of its time on the Western
Hemisphere, even though it was aban-
doned and finally lost from neglect
The building of the present capitol
at a time when the State was very
poor (in the decade between 1830-40
when our population increased only
2 per cent, and we had about three-
fourths of a million people) at a cost
of more than half a million dollars
provoked much criticism. But every
intelligent man admits that it was a
most wise expenditure and though
the State has long outgrown it, we find
satisfaction in its symmetry and un-
surpassed architectural beauty and we
are loath to enlarge it. All the de-
partments of State are too much
crowded to render the best service and
a more capacious building is now ab-
solutely necessary for the transaction
of public business. A larger capitol
or additional building must come as
a business necessity and economy.
In considering additional buildings,
it may be found wise to take under
advisement the acquirement by the
State of the area bounded by Wil-
mington, Jones. Salisbury and Eden-
ton streets. This would give a public
square 420x516 feet, the same width
as Union Square, on which the
capitol stands. In the center of
that square across Halifax street
could be erected a State government
building, commodious, fire proof, mod-
ern in its equipments and adequate for
the transaction of the affairs of the
State. It could contain offices for
State offices, State Library, Supreme
Court Rooms, and Supreme Court Li-
brary, Agricultural Department, etc.
The basement could be made into stor-
age rooms, arsenal, etc. One floor
should be devoted to a Hall of History,
in which portraits, paintings, mural
tablets, medallions, inscriptions, stat-
ues and monuments would show the
history and life of our people spread
out as a great panorama for the gaze
of our own and future generations.
In our Capitol should be mural tab-
lets portraying the war record of our
State. Inscriptions should tell the
tale of the ill-fated Carthagena ex-
pedition in which hundreds died with
no record of even their names; of the
North Carolina soldiers sent to the
French and Indian Wars; of the sol-
diers in the Revolution when North
Carolina was the great recruiting
ground for the American army (this
State furnished over 22,000 soldiers
to the army of the Revolution and the
names of only about 9,000 have been
preserved); of North Carolina's record
in the War of 1S12; of our part in the
Mexican War; of North Carolina's
sacrifices in the Great War for South-
ern Independence; and of our record
in the Spanish-American War.
Our State is now enjoying a period
of marvelous growth, such as she
never before experienced. Great man-
ufacturing enterprises have sprung up
and are being enlarged and enlarged
again. Industries are being developed,
agriculture is being improved and an
era of prosperity and increase in pop-
ulation is upon us. The State and
the people are growing richer and
stronger, education is encouraged with
a liberality of money and of thought
never before known; culture, litera-
ture, and the arts will increase with
wealth and leisure. But with our
agricultural growth and resources un-
surpassed, with material wealth enor-
mously increasing, with our manu-
facturing plants being multiplied with-
out end, we realize that our greatest
resource and asset are our people —
people of intelligence and character,
and our greatest manufacturing plants
are the schools which convert the un-
finished product of a raw boy or girl
into the educated, patriotic North
Carolinian. Today there are over
700,000 children in the schools of the
State — the State will live in them and
they will make the State. We must
plant into the hearts and minds of
those who are one day to shape its
destinies, make its laws, write its his-
tory, sing its songs and paint its glor-
ies, a love and veneration for the
State. To make a great and glorious
future, we must have the knowledge
and inspiration of a great past, for hu-
manity is most powerful in teaching
by example, and history is most gra-
phic when our ideals or examples can
be shown in imperishable paintings,
marbles or bronze. Let us strive not
only to offer the written word, but
show to the world the visible forms
and features of the great actors in the
life of our State.
UNIVERSITY OF N C AT CHAPEL HILL
This book may be kept out one month unless a recall
notice is sent to you. It must be brought to the North
Carolina Collection (in Wilson Library) for renewal.
FEB 2 4 ifl